bitcoin private key

What Is a Private Key? Easy to Read yet In-depth Guide

What Is a Private Key? Easy to Read yet In-depth Guide


If you own any cryptocurrency, it’s super important to understand what private keys are and how they keep your digital money safe. Private key is like the secret code that gives you control over your crypto funds. In this article, we’ll break down what private keys are and why they’re such a big deal in the world of cryptocurrency.

First off, let’s talk about why private keys matter so much for crypto security. You see, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum don’t have banks or other companies watching over your money. Instead, your crypto is spread out across a big network of computers. This means that the only way to prove that you own your crypto and can spend it is by using your private key. It’s like having the key to a special lock that keeps your digital treasure safe.

Now, let’s dive into what private keys actually are and how they work in the world of crypto.

What is a Private Key?

A private key is basically a long string of letters and numbers that acts as a secret password for your cryptocurrency. It’s a unique code that lets you access and control the crypto linked to a specific wallet address. The private key is written in a format called hex (hexadecimal), and here is an example of a Bitcoin private key:


In the world of cryptography (which is all about using math to keep information secret), private keys work together with something called public keys. A public key is another code that’s connected to your private key, but unlike your private key, it’s okay to share your public key with others. In fact, people need your public key to send you cryptocurrency.
The public keys use the same format (the hex) as the private keys. This is why it is very easy to confuse one with another.  

Here is an example of a Bitcoin public key (which is actually a pair for the private key example above):


The cool thing about private and public keys is that they’re connected by some really complex math. Basically, if someone encrypts a message using your public key, only your private key can unlock it. This one-way relationship is what makes cryptocurrency transactions secure.

It’s super important to keep your private keys safe and never share them with anyone else. If someone gets their hands on your private key, they could access your crypto wallet and steal all your digital funds. That’s why it’s crucial to store your private keys securely, preferably using hardware wallets where they are completely safe.

So, to sum it up, a private key is like the secret password to your crypto treasure chest. It works together with a public key to keep your transactions secure, but it’s up to you to make sure your private key stays private. By understanding how private keys work and how to keep them safe, you’ll be well on your way to being a crypto security pro!

How Private Keys are Used in Cryptocurrency

In the world of cryptocurrency, private keys play a crucial role in keeping your digital money safe and giving you control over it. Let’s get into details on how private keys work in crypto wallets and why they’re so important.

Role of private keys in crypto wallets

You can think of a crypto wallet as a special digital safe that holds your cryptocurrency. Each wallet has its own unique private key, which is like a secret code that proves you own the wallet and the crypto inside it.

When someone sends cryptocurrency to your wallet, they use your public address (kind of like an email address). But only you, with your private key, can unlock and spend the crypto that’s been sent to you. (see also Where are my coins really stored?)

How private keys enable access and control over crypto assets

Your private key is like a magic wand that lets you control your cryptocurrency. When you want to spend your crypto or send it to someone else, you use your private key to sign the transaction. This signature proves that you’re the rightful owner and have the authority to make the transaction happen.

Imagine you want to send 1 Bitcoin to your friend Sarah. You would use your private key to sign the transaction, kind of like signing a check. The Bitcoin network then checks the signature to make sure it matches your public address, confirming that you own the Bitcoin and have the right to send it.

Nowadays, you rarely use the private key itself. The keys are stored within wallets and the wallet does all the signing and verification.

Risks of exposing or losing private keys

Here’s the really important part: you must keep your private key secret and safe! If anyone else gets their hands on your private key, they can steal your cryptocurrency. They could sign transactions and empty your wallet without your permission

Losing your private key is just as bad. If you lose it and don’t have a backup, your cryptocurrency is gone forever. No one ever would be able to access these coins without a private key. There’s no customer support or bank that can help you get it back.

Examples of how private keys are used to sign transactions

Let’s say you want to buy something online using cryptocurrency. When you go to pay, your wallet software will combine your private key with the details of the transaction (like how much crypto you’re sending and where it’s going). This creates a unique digital signature for that specific transaction.

For example, when you make an Ethereum transaction, the signature has three parts: the r, s, and v values. These values are added to the transaction before it’s sent out to the Ethereum network, where it gets checked and added to the blockchain.

So, to sum it up, private keys are like the secret superheroes of cryptocurrency. They give you the power to prove you own your crypto, sign transactions, and keep control of your digital money. But with great power comes great responsibility – you must always keep your private key safe and never share it with anyone else!

private key security

Best Practices for Securing Private Keys

When it comes to keeping your cryptocurrency safe, securing your private keys is super important. Private keys are like the secret codes that give you access to your digital money. Here are some of the best ways to make sure your private keys stay safe and sound.

Using hardware wallets for offline private key storage

One of the most secure ways to store your private keys is by using a hardware wallet (check our list of BIP39 compatible wallets). These are special devices that keep your private keys offline, which means they’re not connected to the internet. This makes it much harder for hackers or thieves to get their hands on your keys.

Some of the most popular and trusted hardware wallets out there are Ledger Nano and Trezor One. These wallets are designed with top-notch security features to protect your private keys from any unwanted access.

Importance of properly backing up the hardware wallet seed phrase

When you first set up your hardware wallet, you’ll be given a special list of words called a seed phrase. This seed phrase is like a backup key that can help you get into your wallet if you ever lose the device or forget your password.

It’s really important to create a solid backup of your seed phrase. One great way to do this is by using a metal backup tool like Coinplate Alpha. These are made from tough materials like stainless steel, so you can mark or stamp your seed phrase onto them. That way, even if there’s a fire or flood, your seed phrase will still be safe and readable.

At Coinplate, we know how important it is to keep your seed phrase secure. That’s why we put a lot of effort into making high-quality seed phrase metal backup tools that you can trust to protect your recovery words.

Encrypting private keys

Another thing you can do is to  encrypt your private keys. This means using a special code to scramble your keys so that only you can unscramble them with a password.

When you encrypt your private keys, make sure to use a strong encryption method and choose a password that’s hard for others to guess. You just have to be really sure, that you will be able to reverse the process if needed, even after a long time. That’s why for most users it’s not the best idea.

Generating strong private keys

When you’re creating a new wallet or generating private keys, it’s important to use a method that’s reliable and secure. Don’t use random online key generators or software that you don’t trust, because they might be trying to steal your keys. (Check our Seed Phrase and private key generator based on renowned Ian Coleman’s generator)

The best practice is to use the hardware or software wallet, these tools use special math to create strong and unique private keys that are hard to crack. Keys are also much more secure inside them, especially with hardware wallets.

Never sharing private keys with anyone

One of the most important rules of keeping your private keys safe is to never share them with anyone else. This includes your friends, family, and even customer support people.

Private keys should be also kept offline to avoid them being stolen by hackers.

Remember, anyone who has your private keys can control your cryptocurrency. If someone asks for your private keys, it’s probably a scam.

Having a backup and recovery plan

Even if you’re really careful with your private keys, unexpected things can still happen. Your device might break, get stolen, or be damaged by a natural disaster. That’s why it’s important to have a backup and recovery plan ready.

In addition to backing up your seed phrase, think about making extra copies of your private keys and storing them in different safe places. This could be a bank safe deposit box, a fireproof home safe, or even splitting the keys into parts and giving them to people you trust. Still we recommend using proper hardware wallet, instead of managing the keys by yourself.

It’s also a good idea to practice restoring your wallet from your backup to make sure everything works the way it should. That way, you’ll feel confident that you can get to your cryptocurrency if there’s ever an emergency.

By following these best practices for securing your private keys, you can make it a lot harder for anyone to steal your digital money. Just remember, keeping your cryptocurrency safe is your responsibility, so take the time to learn and use strong security habits.

Private Keys vs Seed Phrases

Private keys and seed phrases might seem like confusing crypto terms, but they’re actually pretty simple once you understand how they work together. Let’s break it down and see why seed phrases are so important for keeping your crypto safe.

How seed phrases relate to private keys

A seed phrase is like a secret code that can unlock all the private keys in your crypto wallet. Private keys are what let you spend your crypto, but instead of having to remember a bunch of long, complicated keys, you just need to know your seed phrase. (check our Guide: Is Seed Phrase The Same As A Private Key?)

When you first set up a wallet, it gives you a seed phrase, which is usually 12 to 24 random words. These words are used to create all the private keys and public addresses for that wallet. So if you ever lose access to your wallet, you can use the seed phrase to get back in and recover all your crypto.

Importance of properly backing up seed phrases

Since your seed phrase is the key to all your crypto, it’s super important to make backups and store them safely. If you lose your seed phrase and don’t have a backup, your crypto could be gone forever.

When you write down your seed phrase, double-check that you copied it correctly and completely. It’s a good idea to make multiple backups and keep them in different secure places, just in case something happens to one of them.

Remember, you should always keep your seed phrase offline and away from any devices that connect to the internet. This helps protect it from hackers and malware.

Best practices for seed phrase storage

One of the best ways to store your seed phrase is by using a metal backup, like the ones made by Coinplate. These are made from super tough stainless steel that can survive fires, floods, and other disasters that could destroy paper backups.

With Coinplate, you can stamp or engrave your seed phrase into the metal, which makes it easy to read even years later. Plus, they’re designed to be simple to use and give you the highest level of protection for your seed phrase.

As experts in making top-notch metal seed phrase storage, Coinplate team puts a ton of effort into creating reliable products that you can count on to keep your crypto safe. We use high-quality materials and smart designs to give you the best possible backup solution.

The bottom line is that seed phrases are the backbone of crypto security. By understanding how they work with private keys and following best practices for backing them up, like using a metal crypto wallet, you can make sure your crypto is always protected.

Risks of Poor Private Key Management

When it comes to keeping your cryptocurrency safe, managing your private keys is super important. Private keys are like the secret codes that give you access to your digital money. If you don’t take good care of them, you could end up losing your crypto forever. Let’s talk about the risks of not handling your private keys properly.

Consequences of losing private keys

Imagine if you lost the key to your piggy bank. You wouldn’t be able to open it and get your money out, right? The same thing can happen with your crypto if you lose your private keys. If you can’t find your private keys, you won’t be able to access your digital coins anymore. They’ll be stuck in your wallet forever, and there’s no way to get them back.

Dangers of storing private keys online or on insecure devices

Some people think it’s a good idea to store their private keys on their computer or online. But this can be really dangerous! If a hacker gets into your computer or the website where you stored your keys, they could steal all your crypto.

It’s like leaving your piggy bank out in the open where anyone can grab it. Instead, you should keep your private keys somewhere safe, like a special hardware wallet that’s not connected to the internet.

Real-world examples of crypto losses due to mismanaged private keys

There have been lots of stories about people and companies losing huge amounts of crypto because they didn’t manage their private keys well. In 2014, a big exchange called Mt. Gox lost 850,000 bitcoins (worth a lot of money!) because a hacker stole their private keys.

Another example is a guy in the UK who threw away a hard drive with his private keys on it. He lost access to 7,500 bitcoins, which would be worth millions of dollars today. Oops!

Importance of self-custody and avoiding custodial wallets

To keep your crypto as safe as possible, it’s best to be in charge of your own private keys. This is called “self-custody.” It means you’re the only one who has access to your keys and your crypto. The best way to do this is by using a hardware wallet, sometimes called as a cold wallet.

Some people use “custodial wallets,” where they let someone else (like a crypto exchange) hold their private keys for them. But this can be risky because if the exchange gets hacked or goes out of business, you could lose all your crypto.

It’s kind of like giving your piggy bank to a friend to hold onto. It might seem easier, but it’s safer to keep it yourself and be responsible for it.

So, remember: always keep your private keys super safe and secret! Don’t store them on your computer or online where hackers could find them. And if possible, be in charge of your own keys instead of trusting someone else to hold them for you. That way, you’ll have the best chance of keeping your crypto secure.


Wow, we’ve learned a lot about how important private keys are for keeping your cryptocurrency safe! Let’s go over the main points one more time.

Private keys are like the secret codes that prove you own your crypto. They work together with public keys to make sure only you can spend your digital money. It’s super important to keep your private keys safe and never share them with anyone else.

One of the best ways to protect your private keys is by using a hardware wallet. These are special devices that keep your keys offline and away from hackers. It’s also a really good idea to make backups of your seed phrase (the list of words that can be used to get your private keys) by stamping or engraving it on a piece of metal. One of the best ways to secure your backup your wallet is by using Coinplate – ultra-durable seed phrase backup. That way, even if something happens to your hardware wallet, you can still get to your crypto.

Remember, when it comes to cryptocurrency, you’re in charge of keeping your money safe. By taking the time to learn about private keys and using secure methods like hardware wallets and metal seed phrase backups, you’re taking a big step in protecting your digital wealth. So don’t be afraid to take control of your private keys – it’s the best way to make sure your crypto is always safe and sound.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What happens if I lose my private key?

 If you lose your private key and don’t have a backup of your seed phrase, your cryptocurrency will be stuck forever. There’s no way to get it back without the private key. That’s why it’s so important to make sure you have secure backups of your seed phrase.

2. Can I share my private key with someone I trust?

You should never share your private key with anyone, not even your best friend or family members. If someone else has your private key, they can take all your cryptocurrency without your permission. This would only work if you can trust them completely.

3. Are hardware wallets the only way to securely store private keys?

Hardware wallets are definitely one of the safest ways to store your private keys. But it is important to make sure you have a secure seed phrase backup, which can be achieved easily with Coinplate.

4. How do I create a backup of my private key or seed phrase?

To back up your private key or seed phrase, you should preferably stamp/engrave it on a metal plates. You can make on yourself or use Coinplate. Make sure to double-check that you’ve copied it down correctly, and then store your backups in a super secure place, like a fireproof safe or a bank safety deposit box. You might want to make multiple backups and keep them in different locations, just to be extra safe.

5. What should I do if I think my private key has been exposed?

 If you think someone else might have gotten access to your private key, you need to act fast! The first thing you should do is transfer all your cryptocurrency to a new wallet with a new private key. That way, even if the bad guys have your old private key, they won’t be able to steal your digital money. After you’ve moved your funds, make sure to create new backups of your seed phrase and store them securely. Check our guide on What to Do When Your Seed Phrase or Wallet is Compromised